For the metropolitan area, see Rochester, New York metropolitan area.(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.With a population of 208,880 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo.The metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people.Several of the region's universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) have renowned research programs.
By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the "Flower City." Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland.Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain.Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York. (1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (ca.After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, including inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who launched Bausch & Lomb in 1861.Not only did they create new industries, but Eastman became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music and other local institutions.In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men's fashions.It was the base of enterprises Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch & Co.By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County.In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester.Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was re-routed south of Rochester.