We simply do not have enough reliable information to arrive at a scientifically rigorous conclusion.Years ago, as a skeptic of the Shroud, I came to realize that while I might believe it was a fake, I could not know so from the facts.The “frosty” 6 contaminant is also not present on the Mark Evans image of the Shroud.15 As ‘the "frosty" coating is almost certainly a plant gum in the Raes sample’ 6 it is likely to be a plant gum in the Oxford sample.
There is very little data about the samples tested by Oxford, Zurich and Arizona: no chemical analysis has been published and most of the photographic evidence is not sufficiently detailed.
No one has a good idea how front and back images of a crucified man came to be on the cloth.
Yes, it is possible to create images that look similar.
I would not have pressed shock with the monitor showing this, as I would have thought it was likely to induce VF. 2018-04-03 Doug What it Looks Like: Cardiac Arrest This really cemented the reasoning behind obtaining an ekg on seizure or syncope and why any syncopated episode during exercise can be an ominous sign.
This paper came out of an online conversation with Joe Marino and Paul Maloney, with additional input from Bill Meacham, Professor Emanuela Marinelli and Barrie Schwortz.