ERRα-positivity is associated with poor prognosis and tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. Pub Med PMID: 25410866; Pub Med Central PMCID: PMC4300755. This finding is likely due to ERRα substituting for ERα to activate ERα–responsive genes even when tamoxifen is presence. Pub Med PMID: 28617871; Pub Med Central PMCID: PMC5487075. Pub Med PMID: 26431332; Pub Med Central PMCID: PMC4592227. For instance, France agreed that its soldiers would remain prisoners of war until the cessation of all hostilities.Replacing the French Third Republic that had dissolved during France's defeat was the "French State" ( on 11 November 1942 in response to Operation Torch, the Allied landings in French North Africa on 8 November 1942.
Alsace-Lorraine, which had been annexed after the Franco-Prussian war in 1871 by the German Empire and returned to France after the First World War, was re-annexed by the Third Reich (thus subjecting their male population to German military conscription.) The departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais were attached to the military administration in Belgium and Northern France, which was also responsible for civilian affairs in the 20-kilometre (12 mi) wide zone interdite along the Atlantic coast.The southern part of France, except for the western half of Aquitaine along the Atlantic coast, became the zone libre ("free zone"), where the Vichy regime remained sovereign as an independent state, though under heavy German influence due to the restrictions of the Armistice (including a heavy tribute) and economical dependency on Germany.It constituted a land area of 246,618 square kilometres, approximately 45 percent of France, and included approximately 33 percent of the total French labor force.It was expanded to all territory on the left bank of the Rhône river after its invasion together with Germany of Vichy France on 11 November 1942, except for areas around Lyon and Marseille, which were added to Germany's zone sud, and Corsica.The Italian occupation zone was also occupied by Germany and added to the zone sud after Italy's surrender in September 1943, except for Corsica, which was liberated by the landings of Free French forces and local Italian troops that had switched sides to the Allies.Our group's second area of research concerns the roles of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in regulation of estrogen responsiveness and breast carcinogenesis. We have found that ERRα can function as either a down-modulator or constitutive activator of estrogen response element-directed transcription, with its activity regulated by post-translational modifications controlled by cellular signaling pathways, not ligands; it can also form heterodimers with estrogen receptor α (ERα). France was roughly divided into an occupied northern zone and an unoccupied southern zone, according to the armistice convention "in order to protect the interests of the German Reich".The French colonial empire remained under the authority of Marshall Pétain's Vichy regime.These restrictions remained in place after Vichy was occupied and the zone renamed zone sud ("south zone"), and also placed under military administration in November 1942.The Italian occupation zone consisted of small areas along the Alps border, and a 50-kilometre (31 mi) demilitarised zone along the same.