35-95 AD) from De Institutione Oratoria (I, 81)]What we know about early societies can be inferred only from those objects that have survived and have been recovered and identified.We cannot converse with early man and only rarely can we read what he or she had to say about him- or herself, for so much 'so-called' early literature was in fact written down many centuries after the event, an echo of an oral tradition.Transposing Instruments How to Write Parts for Transposing Instruments')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"19 | Lesson 20 - Rhythmic Variety Rhythmic Modes Anacrusis Syncopation Dotting & Double DottingÉgal & Inégal Hemiola, Hemiolia or Cross Rhythm Swing Rhythm Syllables')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"20 | Lesson 21 - Phrasing & Articulation Slur & Phrase Tenuto & Staccato Slurs & Staccato Variety of Accents Articulation on Wind Instruments Articulation on Stringed Instruments Articulation and Phrasing on Percussion Instruments Dot & Wedge in Clavichord Music Pedalling on the Piano Table of Dynamic Markings Table of General Musical Markings')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"21 | Lesson 22 - Chords & Cadences Cadences Perfect Cadence Plagal Cadence Imperfect Cadence Interrupted/Deceptive Cadence The Six Four Cadence Feminine Endings Antecedent & Consequent Summary of Cadences')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"22 | Lesson 23 - Ornamentation Introduction Accidentals and Ornamentation Grace Notes Appoggiaturas Nachslag Turns Trills Pralltriller Mordents Vibrato Arpeggiation Divisions')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"24 | Lesson 25 - Notes, Harmonies & Scales Origin of Diatonic and Chromatic Scales Modes Jazz Scales Blues Bebop Scales Pentatonic Scales The Minor Key Problem Altered Chords Neapolitan Sixth Symmetrical Scales Table of Useful Scales Non-Harmonic Notes')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"25 | Lesson 26 - Score Formats Instrumental Ensembles Solos & Parts Keyboards Percussion How to Write Parts for Transposing Instruments Sounding Range of Orchestral Instruments Chart of Sounding Range and Clefs Used Conducting Sample Scores')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"26 | Lesson 27 - Pitch, Temperament & Timbre Pitch History of Musical Pitch Harmonic or Overtone Series Inharmonicity Pythagorean Series Meantone Scale Equal Temperament Just Intonation Naming Intervals Historical Temperaments Temperament and Pitch Calculator Beats and Tuning Information on Temperaments Timbre/Tone Colour Classification of Common Musical Instruments Supplement - Interval Calculator Supplement - Analysis of Temperaments')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"27 | Lesson 28 - Musical Instrument Fingering Charts Woodwind Instruments Band Instruments Brass Instruments Serpent & Ophicleide Baroque Flute Dulcian Recorder Shakuhachi Quena Tin-Whistle Bagpipe')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"28 | Lesson 29 - Musical Instrument Ranges & Names Bowed & Plucked Strings Harp Flutes Clarinets Saxophones Double Reeds Trumpets & Trombones Horns & Tubas Tuned Percussion Voices Recorders Keyboards Viols Instrument Names in Other Languages Instrument Names & Their Abbreviations Orchestral Layout Sounding Range of Orchestral Instruments Chart of Sounding Range and Clefs Used Conducting')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"29 | Lesson 30 - Guitar Tablature & Notation Reading Chord Charts Writing Notes The Origins of Tablature Notation Writing Chords Transposing Chord Names Special Effects Voicing Chords The Lute')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"30 | Lesson 31 - Key Centres The Nature of Tonality Major Keys Minor Keys Triad Progressions Modes Combining Major and Minor Keys Modal Interchange Using Dominants Diminished Seventh Chords Melodic Substitution Reharmonisation Modulation Alan Belkin - General Principles of Harmony')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"34 | Lesson 35 - Music before the 16th Century From Earliest Times Greeks & Romans Early Christian Church Music of the Dark Ages (475-1000)Music of the High Middle Ages (1000-1350)Music of the Late Middle Ages (1350-1500)Music of the Proto-Renaissance')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"35 | Lesson 36 - Music of the 16th Century Early Renaissance Timeline Humanism Music Theory Music Printing The Renaissance and the French Court Origins of Early Opera and Ballet Music in New Spain Sixteenth Century Chinese Operamore in preparation...')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"38 | Lesson 39 - Music of the 19th Century A Survey of 19th Century Music Romanticism Orientalism Nationalism, Folk Song & Primitivism Looking Back - The Early Music Revival Late 19th Century Symbolism19th Century American Music Bringing Back Voices From the 19th Century Performance Practice and Aesthetics of the 19th Century')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"39 | Lesson 40 - Music of the 20th Century Progressing into the 20th Century Neo-Romanticism Breakdown of Tonality Impressionism Neo-Classicism Machine Music Computer Music Twelve Note Method Influences of Jazz Microtonal Music Electronic Music Indeterminacy Minimalism Music Theatre By Eric Salzman Experimental Music Today Summary of Terms & Concepts in 20th Century Music Musical Analysis')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"Etiam singulorum fatigatio quamlibet se rudi modulatione solatur.[translation: Men, even when alone, lighten their labours by song, however rude it may be]Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, Roman rhetorician and critic (c.In addition to suggesting that the early Chinese were accomplished musicians and craftspeople, the Jiahu site reveals that the Chinese in Jiahu had already established a village life.They had parts of the city, or village, that were devoted to different functions.Only where there was some form of cross-fertilization, as between Mesopotamia (the land between two rivers) and Egypt, would similarities appear.
Garman Harbottle, of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, said, in a telephone interview, "They are the oldest playable musical instruments".
Lesson 1 - Staff, Clefs & Pitch Notation The Grand Staff Naming the Notes Staff or Stave Naming the Notes Staff or Stave The Clef Sign The Treble Clef The Bass Clef The Alto Clef Other Clefs (lesson 14)The Score Why Middle C?
Helmholtz Pitch Notation English Octave-Naming Convention Franco-Belgic Octave-Naming Convention Scientific Pitch Notation Naming The Octaves MIDIShape Note Notation Tonic Sol-fa Oz Pitch-Naming Convention Integer Notation')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"1 | Lesson 2 - Notes & Rests Duration Anatomy of a Note Sign Chart of Note & Rest Signs Dotting & Double-Dotting Beams & Beaming Ties Origin of Music Notation Additional Notes on the History of Music Notation Supplement - Links about Music Notation')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"3 | Lesson 4 - Time Signatures and Meter Time Signature and Meter Unusual Time Signatures and Hypermeasures Mensuration Common Time & Alla Breve/Cut Time Changing Time Signatures The Whole Bar Rest Incomplete Bars Ametric Music')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"8 | Lesson 9 - Key Signatures and Accidentals The Key Signature The Circle of Fifths The Order of Sharps & Flats in Key Signatures Enharmonics Using Accidentals Changing Key Notes and Keys in Various Languages')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"9 | Lesson 10 - Minor Scales The Natural Minor Scale Chart of Natural Minor Scales Double Sharps & Flats Harmonic Minor Chart of Harmonic Minor Scales Melodic Minor Chart of Melodic Minor Scales Relative & Parallel Major & Minor')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"11 | Lesson 12 - Intervals Degrees of the Scale Melodic & Harmonic Intervals Unisons & Octaves Diatonic Intervals Chromatic Intervals The Tritone Compound Intervals Table of Intervals')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"13 | Lesson 14 - Other Clefs Soprano & Mezzo-Soprano Clefs Tenor Clef Baritone & Subbass Clefs French Violin Clef Octave Clefs Indefinite Pitch Clef Summary of Clef Signs')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"14 | Lesson 15 - Note Groupings Simple & Compound Time/Meter Uneven/Asymmetrical Time Triplets Duplets Other-lets Grouping Notes and Rests Time Signatures, How We Say Them')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"16 | Lesson 17 - Chords in Detail Seventh Chords Inverted Chords Slash Chords Extended Chords - 9th, 11th, 13th Special Chords Naming Chords Supplement - Chords (including chord transposer)Supplement - 1000 Scales (including scale transposer)')" on Mouse Out="window.status=' '; return true"18 | Lesson 19 - Transposition Transposition at the Octave Transposing into another Key What Key is My Instrument in?
German archeologists have discovered a 35,000-year-old ivory flute in a cave in the hills of southern Germany, the university of Tübingen announced Friday.
The instrument, among the world's oldest and made from a woolly mammoth's ivory tusk, was assembled from 31 pieces that were found in the cave in the Swabian Jura mountains, where ivory figurines, ornaments and other musical instruments have been found in recent years.