As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the "perp walk", parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool.Giuliani's critics claim he arranged public arrests of people, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial.
Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city.They cited the Liberal Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school prayer and tuition tax credits." Dinkins filed several years of returns and said the tax matter had been fully paid off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor", and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word—he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican." In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by a margin of 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in New York City's history.The closeness of the race was particularly noteworthy considering the small percentage of New York City residents who are registered Republicans and resulted in Giuliani being the presumptive nominee for a re-match with Dinkins at the next election.Within three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial.We're just the tip of the iceberg", but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place.In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (security consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). He also worked as a Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s, Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War.Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen Giuliani (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both children of Italian immigrants. Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he made the NYU Law Review Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. His conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at Manhattan College and NYU Law.Tyler later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his tactics "overkill".the third-highest position in the Department of Justice.The Conservative Party, which had often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from Giuliani and ran Lauder instead.Conservative Party leaders were unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds.