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Dating ancient textiles

1c, d), and the costumes are filled with Sasanian p atterns (animal motifs encircled in pearl roundels) (Fig. Chinese damask silks and Tang rosette silks (bao xiang hua wen jin in Chinese) appear in the paintings of the early 8th century (Fig. In the murals from the middle of the 8th century animal motifs in medallions are no longer seen and are replaced by flowers (Fig. The Afrasiab paintings supplemented the shortage of examples of the seventh century of Pendzhikent murals and has shown clearly that the Sasanian patterns with animal motifs were popular in Sogdiana as early as around 650 (Fig. In the paintings of Varakhsha Chinese damask and Tang rosette silks have been found (Fig. Pointing out that the two kinds of Chinese silks appeared only after the eighth century on Pendzhikent murals, A. She wears a caftan overlapping at the front and a cape over it. Sakamoto's article in Research Center for Silk Roadology (ed.) 2000, pp. Sims-Williams has proposed a reading of the inscription Zrwmßntk (instead of z, ?

The cape itself is made by brocade of a peacock motif, and its hems are embellished by other brocade with a flower motif in a pearl roundel. Negmatov, "Ustrushana, Ferghana, Chach and Ilak", in B. Litvinsky (ed.), The crossroads of civilizations: A. 250 to 750, History of civilizations of Central Asia 3, 1996, Paris, pp. Shishkin, "O xudozhestvennom remesle v Srednej Azii V-VIII vv. Bentovich, "Rekonstruktsija uzora Sogdijskoj tkani VII-VIII vv, Sovetskaja Arkheologija 1964/4, pp. 128-141 (table 1); "Iran (Khorasan), Central Asia (Sogdiana), Turfan", K. or n is possible for the first letter of the word) as a name of a person,"slave of Zurwan.20 Fig. Marshak has independently arrived at the conclusion that the bowl from Shapo village was made in Sogdiana (Ars Orientalis 29, 1999, p.

It has been proven that one pouch discovered there was made by Chinese damask silks woven with a paired dragons pattern.

A fragment of Chinese brocade with a small flower in pearl roundel was also discovered.

Besides Chinese documents, there are some archeological materials connected with silk production. As monochrome damask silks and Tang rosette silks are specific products of China, those depicted on the murals are surely Chinese. Ierusalimskaja, "K slozheniju shkoly khdozhestvennogo shelkotkachestva", Srednjaja Azija i Iran, Leningrad, 1972, pp. These kinds of textiles which still reserve their bright colors have recently been discovered: K. Sundermann is most likely to be interpreted as "brocade" from the context (W. Next, the textiles with animal motifs represented in the Afrasiab painting have been identified as Sasanian textiles (Mode 1993, pp. Textiles with animal motifs in pearl medallions had flourished in Sogdiana in the second half of the seventh century and the first half of the eighth century. Otavsky (ed.), Entlang der Seidenstraße, Riggisberger Berichte 6, 1998, Riggisberg, figs. Sundermann, Der Sermon von der Seele, Berliner Turfantexte 19, 1997, Turnhout, Belgium, p. While comparable animals are depicted in Sogdian art (wall paintings and silver vessels), they are not the senmurv, but winged camels or winged lions Now we will turn to the examination of silk producing in Sogdiana. Considerably more is known about silk weaving in some oases of Chinese Turkestan: Chinese documents unearthed in Turfan mention "brocades of Kucha" and "brocades of Kashgar. Examinations of Sogdian documents make it possible to date these fragments before 722. 1-14; The Silk Road fabrics from the Han to the T'ang dynasty (in Chinese), 1973, Beijing; Yamanobe 1979; Chinese arts (in Chinese), textile, vol.Especially murals of Pendzhikent have been dated on coins, traces of fires (related to the campaign of Arabs in 722) and so on (Belenitskii and Marshak in Azarpay 1981, pp. 1, 1985, Beijing; Wu Min, Textiles and embroideries (in Chinese), 1992, Taipei; Zhao Feng 1999; Research Center for Silk Roadology (ed.) 2000; Yokohari 1991, 1992, 1997, 2001 etc.15 P. Yarshater (ed.), The Cambridge history of Iran 3(2), Cambridge, London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, Sydney, 1983, pp.Her caftan is made by pink damask silks, and its hems are embellished by brocades with a Pegasus motif of which only a part of the head, and of the right wing and of the right foreleg with a ribbon, can be recognized. Marshak), Une nouvelle peinture murale sogdienne dans le temple de Dzartepa II, Studia Iranica 30, 2001, pp. 259-280; Tanabe and Maeda (eds.) 1999; Chuvin et al. po pamjatnikam drevnej zhivopisi (tekstil'), Kratkie soobshshenija Instituta Istorii Material'noj Kul'tury 80, 1960, pp. 196-199; Belenitskij, Bentovich, Bol'shakov 1973, pp. 94-97.9 Roman numeral/Arabic numeral assigned to each drawings of Fig. Azarpay, "Some Iranian iconographic formulae in Sogdian painting", Iranica Antiqua 9, 1976, pp. Tanabe, "Winged camelus bactrianus in Sogdian art" (in Japanese with English summary), Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern studies in Japan 25/1, 1982, pp. A series of Sasanian and Sasanian-type coins has a countermark of animal motifs similar to the senmurv together with the Sogdian inscription prn /farn/ "glory, fortune". 3c, d and Table 3 in this paper are made using fig. I added an ewer from a private collection of New York (Table 2, No. Here we can find that painter depicted only half of the flower motif and a small part of the Pegasus motif as it was, not simplified. Wardwell, When silk was gold, Central Asian and Chinese textiles, New York, 1999, pl. de la Vaissière in Silk Road Art and Archaeology 8, 2002, pp. 1 signifies the place where paintings have been discovered. 1b (VII/24) was excavated at room 24 in block VII of the site.11 On the animal motifs in pearl medallions in the art of Iran, Central Asia and China see C. Bromberg, "Sasanian royal emblems in the Northern Caucasus", in Proceedings of the first European conference of Iranian studies 1, Old and Middle Iranian studies, 1990, 1990, pp. Nikitin and Roth have conjectured that the countermark could have been stamped in Sogdiana, (or in Tokharistan, Northern India) in the end of the seventh century. However we know very little concerning which kind of silk fabrics have been used and produced in Sogdiana. I put aside the problem of so-called "Zandanîjî" silks, and profile the iconographic materials, such as painting and silver vessels, and attempt to find Sogdian textiles in the actual excavated textiles.Sogdian silks may reminds readers of the so-called "Zandanîjî" silks. This paper, it is a pleasure to contribute to a volume in honor of B. Marshak, examines motifs of textiles depicted on Sogdian mural paintings, where we can see Sogdians with clothes made of polychrome silks (jin in Chinese), and it is suggested that one group of that kind of textiles unearthed in Turfan was manufactured in Sogdiana.

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